CCAF Design

Performance learning design that enables what learners need to do to be successful.

Our industry continues to be plagued with e-learning designs that focus too much on content (i.e. what the learner needs to know). We believe e-learning instructional design should focus on what the learner needs to do.

Allen's CCAF Design Model, heavily covered in bestseller, Michael Allen's Guide to e-Learning, 2nd Edition, consists of four components of instructional interactivity which include:

  • CONTEXT: A meaningful situation
  • CHALLENGE: A stimulus or urgency to act
  • ACTIVITY: Consequences of user actions and guidance as needed
  • FEEDBACK: A physical gesture (in response to the challenge)


This model is rooted in driving performance change for building Meaningful, Memorable, Motivational, and Measurable custom learning experiences that are authentic representations of real-world settings, choices, skill applications, and consequences that employees face in their jobs. 

Our founder & CEO, Dr. Michael Allen, creator of CCAF, also deeply believes in the value of practice, pointing out that many training programs provide far too little practice and that certain practice paradigms are far more effective than others.

Throughout the three decades, our CCAF and SAM design and development approaches have helped many forward-thinking companies build quality, engaging learning experiences. We're also honored to have educated thousands of professionals on these e-learning design and development principles for building true instructional interactivity. 

CCAF Design Model



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